Friday, April 12, 2019

Tares Among the Wheat - A Review


            A series of movies available on Amazon Prime Video includes New Testament textual criticism among the subjects it covers – but not in a good way.  Rather than introduce viewers to valid aspects of the field, Christian Pinto and Adullam Films promote the conspiracy theory that Codex Sinaiticus was created in 1840 by Constantine Simonides, particularly in the segment of the movie Tares Among the Wheat that is introduced (about an hour and 50 minutes after the movie starts) by the heading “The Simonides Affair.”

            Those who want proof that Codex Sinaiticus is indeed an ancient document are welcome to consult four earlier posts on the subject:
Sinaiticus is Not a Forgery:  Setting the Stage – in which I provide some background about Constantine  Simonides and his career as a criminal forger, and explain why no one should believe James White’s account of how Tischendorf first encountered pages from Codex Sinaiticus.
Ten Reasons Why Sinaiticus Was Not Made by Simonides – in which I summarize 10 observations which weight in against Simonides’ claim to have written the text in Codex Sinaiticus – including the observations that different copyists (with different handwriting and different standards of spelling) produced the manuscript, and that the manuscript includes in its margin an Arabic note that alludes to an Arab invasion.
Ten More Reasons Why Sinaiticus Was Not Made by Simonides – in which I summarize 10 more reasons why Simonides’ claim should be rejected – including some details of Simonides’ earlier attempt to use a forgery to defraud the Academy of Berlin.  Constantine Tischendorf played a key role in exposing Simonides’ forgery, after which Simonides was arrested. 
What Darkened Sinaiticus? – in which an explanation is provided, with input from Jacob Peterson, of the differing tints of different sets of photographs of pages of Codex Sinaiticus. 

            Chris Pinto’s movie Tares Among the Wheat (the second in the trilogy) strangely avoids sharing the details about how Constantine Simonides tried to defraud the Academy of Berlin, and does not go into detail about his other attempts to sell forgeries to various individuals and institutions in Europe.  The movie avoids giving a detailed account of Tischendorf’s role in the events in 1856 that led to the arrest of Simonides, and thus viewers are not shown that Simonides had a strong motive to attempt to cause trouble for Tischendorf.     

            Tares Among the Wheat also does viewers a disservice via its minimal description of items in the collection of Joseph Mayer, who was an antiquities-collector in Liverpool, England.  Mayer had obtained a variety of ancient materials from Egypt, including some papyrus scrolls which were so tightly rolled up that he was reluctant to open them himself, and so he had Simonides inspect them.  Along with examining some of Mayer’s genuinely ancient materials (which included a very ancient Egyptian papyrus), and claiming to have discovered a fragment of Hegesippus’ Ecclesiastical History, Simonides spent some time studying the papyrus scrolls, and when he was done preparing them, he declared that they contained ancient New Testament texts, including
Some of the forgeries made by Simonides still exist,
at the World Museum in Liverpool, England
.
            (1)  Five fragments with text from the Gospel of Matthew, including one which included, after the end of chapter 28, a note stating that it had been written by the hand of Nicolaus the Deacon, at the dictation of Matthew, the apostle of Jesus Christ, in the fifteenth year after the ascension of our Lord, and distributed to the believing Jews and Greeks in Palestine,” and
            (2) two fragments of the Epistle of James, and
            (3) a fragment of the Epistle of Jude.
            Furthermore, Simonides claimed that the text in all three fragments deviated from the normal text.  For instance, he claimed that in the newly discovered text of Matthew 27:19, Pilate’s wife’s message is much longer; in the newly discovered text of Matthew 27:20, the word αυτων is present (so as to convey “their multitudes”);  in the newly discovered text of Matthew 28:6, the angel describes Jesus as the Lord of death; in James 1:2, the twelve tribes are called the twelve tribes of Israel; in verse 19 of Jude in the newly discovered text, the word “actually” (ολως) is present (so as to convey that the false teachers “do not actually have the Spirit”), and verse 22 is phrased so as to say, “On some have compassion in the fear of the Lord.” 
            If anyone involved in the production of Tares Among the Wheat thinks that Constantine Simonides was not a swindler and a con artist who wrote forged texts on the blank reverse-pages of ancient papyri, then they should be clamoring for the items described by Simonides in Mayer’s personal museum (now part of the World Museum in Liverpool) to be brought to public attention and scrutinized.  But if, instead, they think (as members of the Royal Society of Literature concluded in 1863) that Simonides was an educated huckster who tried to defraud German academics by doctoring ancient manuscripts, so as to make them appear to be palimpsests that contained yet more ancient writing, then they should realize that Simonides had a strong motive to try to impugn Tischendorf’s reputation – for it was Tischendorf who had stepped in and prevented the Academy of Berlin from purchasing such a forgery from Simonides.   
                         
 
Christian J. Pinto
          
Not only did the producers of Tares Among the Wheat promote and encourage the conspiracy theory about Sinaiticus and Simonides, but they even tried to draw the genuineness of Codex Vaticanus into doubt.  Following an interview in which Scot McKendrick stated that the decorative book-titles in Codex Vaticanus were added by “a fifteenth-century scribe,” the narrator asks, “Is it possible that the reason Codex Vaticanus has a strange and even newer appearance is that it may not be a truly ancient manuscript?”
            It should be noted that McKendrick’s statement is contestable; the exact point at which those book-titles were spruced up is not known; it makes sense to reckon that the letter-reinforcement throughout the manuscript, and the title-enhancements, were undertaken to make the codex look more presentable just prior to being placed in the Vatican Library, but that theory is, well, theoretical.
            McKendrick may also be subject to mild criticism because of his claim that Codex Sinaiticus is “The ancestor of all the Bibles that everybody else has in the world.”  For those who use the King James Version or some other version based on the Textus Receptus, or based on the Byzantine Text, such a claim is entirely false.

            Tares Among the Wheat is three hours of anti-Jesuit propaganda, blended with KJV-Onlyist versions of selective details in the history of New Testament textual criticism.  Even if the producers of this movie possessed the purest theology on earth, the fact remains that no theology is well-served by obscuring evidence and making stuff up.  We should not serve it that way; we should not want to serve it that way.  This movie’s conspiracy theory about Codex Sinaiticus should not be taken seriously.

            Those who want to see the kind of texts that Simonides produced, and which he vigorously defended as ancient documents, should consult the following links.  (Needless to say, the handwriting of Simonides is very different from the handwriting in Codex Sinaiticus):
            Simonides’ forgery of Matthew 28:6ff. (Fragment M111690.5 at the World Museum, in Liverpool).
            Simonides’ forgery of the “Voyage of Hanno” (Fragment M11169G at the World Museum, in Liverpool).



Readers are invited to double-check the data in this post.
   

Saturday, April 6, 2019

Comparing Sinaiticus and Byz in John: 100 Differences

            Having looked at 180 translation-impacting differences between the Byzantine Text and the text in Codex Sinaiticus in the Synoptic Gospels (60 in Matthew, 60 in Mark, 60 in Luke), today we complete the set, looking at 100 translation-impacting differences between the Byzantine Text and the text that was written by the copyist of Codex Sinaiticus in the Gospel of John. 
            The readings from Sinaiticus in this list vary in size and in the amount of impact that they have on translation – in one case, 12 verses are affected; in some other cases, a single word is changed.  In several cases, the reading in Codex Sinaiticus constitutes a historical error.
            Red dots accompany cases where the Byzantine Text and the Nestle-Aland compilation both disagree with the reading written by the copyist of Codex Sinaiticus.  Black dots accompany cases where Codex Sinaiticus and the Nestle-Aland compilation agree with each other and disagree with the Byzantine reading; there are fourteen such cases (among these particular 100 variant-units).

1.  In John 1:15, does John the Baptist say that Jesus is the One he was speaking of before?
            ﬡ:  no
            Byz:  yes

2.  Does John 1:17 affirm that grace and truth come from Jesus Christ?
            ﬡ:  no (the word “Christ” is absent)
            Byz:  yes

3.  Does John 1:18 refer to “the only begotten Son who is in the bosom of the Father” or to “only begotten God in the bosom of the Father”?
            ﬡ:  only begotten God in the bosom of the Father
            Byz:  the only begotten Son who is in the bosom of the Father

4.  Does John 1:20 emphasize John the Baptist’s confession by mentioning twice that he confessed?
            ﬡ:  no
            Byz:  yes

5.  In John 1:34, does John the Baptist affirm that Jesus is the Son of God, or that Jesus is the chosen one of God?
            ﬡ:  chosen one of God
            Byz:  Son of God

6.  Does John 2:3 contain a phrase which says that they did not have wine, because the wine for the marriage-feast was finished?
            ﬡ:  yes
            Byz:  no

7.  Does John 2:6 say that the waterpots were standing there?
            ﬡ:  no
            Byz:  yes

8.  Does John 2:10 specifically say that Jesus manifested His glory?
            ﬡ:  no
            Byz:  yes

9.  Does John 2:12 mention Jesus’ disciples?
            ﬡ:  no
            Byz:  yes
               
10.  Does John 2:21 specify that Jesus spoke of the temple of His body?
            ﬡ:  no
            Byz:  yes

11.  In John 3:8, does Jesus describe “everyone who has been born of water and of the Spirit”?
            ﬡ:  yes
            Byz:  no (Jesus describes “everyone who has been born of the Spirit”)

● 12.  Does John 3:13 mention “the Son of Man who is in heaven”?
            ﬡ:  no
            Byz:  yes

13.  Does John 3:16 affirm that God gave His only begotten Son?
            ﬡ:  no
            Byz:  yes

14.  Does John 3:20 affirm that everyone who hates the light does not come to the light?
            ﬡ:  no
            Byz:  yes

15.  Does John 3:21 affirm that the one who does the truth comes to the light, that his deeds may be made manifest?
            ﬡ:  no
            Byz:  yes

16.  Does John 3:31 affirm that He who comes from heaven is above all?
            ﬡ:  no
            Byz:  yes

● 17.  Does John 4:1 refer to Jesus as “the Lord”?
            ﬡ:  no
            Byz:  yes

18.  Does John 4:9 say that Jews have no dealings with Samaritans?
            ﬡ:  no
            Byz:  yes

19.  In John 4:19, does the Samaritan woman refer to Jesus as “Lord”?
            ﬡ:  no
            Byz:  yes

20.  Does John 4:39 specify that many of the Samaritans believed on Him?
            ﬡ:  no
            Byz:  yes

21.  Does John 4:45 say that the Galileans received Him?
            ﬡ:  no
            Byz:  yes

● 22.  Does John 5:3 mention that the sick people were waiting for the moving of the waters?
            ﬡ:  no
            Byz:  yes

● 23.  Does John 5:4 say that an angel stirred up the waters, and that the one who first entered the pool after the waters were stirred up would be healed?
            ﬡ:  no (the entire verse is absent)
            Byz:  yes

24.  Does John 5:9 say that the man immediately became whole?
            ﬡ:  no
            Byz:  yes        

25.  Does John 5:14 mention that the healed man found Jesus healing in the temple?
            ﬡ:  yes
            Byz:  no

● 26.  Does John 5:16 say that the Jews sought to kill Jesus?
            ﬡ:  no
            Byz:  yes

27.  In John 5:25, does Jesus refer to an hour that is coming and now is?
            ﬡ:  no
            Byz:  yes

28.  Does John 5:26 say that the Father has given to the Son to have life in Himself?
            ﬡ:  no
            Byz:  yes

29.  In John 6:10, how does John describe the place where Jesus fed the five thousand?
            ﬡ:  there was much place in that place
            Byz:  there was much grass

30.  In John 6:10, about how many men were present?
            ﬡ:  three thousand
            Byz:  five thousand

● 31.  Does John 6:11 say that Jesus gave the loaves to the disciples, and the disciples gave them to those who were sitting down?
            ﬡ:  no
            Byz:  yes

32.  Does John 6:15 say that Jesus withdrew from the crowd, or that He escaped the crowd?
            ﬡ:  He escaped
            Byz:  He withdrew

33.  In John 6:26, does Jesus’ statement begin, “You seek me”?
            ﬡ:  no
            Byz:  yes  

34.  Does John 6:27 say that God the Father has sealed the Son of Man?
            ﬡ:  no
            Byz:  yes

35.  In John 6:39, does Jesus say something specifically about the will of the One who sent Him?
            ﬡ:  no
            Byz:  yes

36.  In John 6:42, do the Jews affirm that they know Jesus’ mother?
            ﬡ:  no
            Byz:  yes

37.  In John 6:46, does Jesus say that He who is from God has seen the Father?
            ﬡ:  no; Jesus says that He who is from the Father has seen God.
            Byz:  yes

● 38.  In John 6:47, does Jesus say that the one who believes in Him has eternal life?
            ﬡ:  no
            Byz:  yes

39.  In John 6:55, does Jesus say that His blood is truly drink?
            ﬡ:  no
            Byz:  yes

40.  Does John 6:64 refer to Jesus as “the Savior”?
            ﬡ:  yes
            Byz:  no

● 41.  In John 6:69, does Simon Peter describe Jesus as “the Christ, the Son of the living God,” or as “the Holy One of God”?
            ﬡ:  the Holy One of God
            Byz:  the Christ, the Son of the living God

42.  In John 7:6, does Jesus say “My time is not yet come,” or “My time is not come”?
            ﬡ:  My time is not (ου) come
            Byz:  My time is not yet (ουπω) come

43.  In John 7:7, does Jesus say specifically that He testifies concerning the world?
            ﬡ:  no
            Byz:  yes

● 44.  In John 7:8, does Jesus say, “I am not going up to this feast,” or “I am not yet going up to this feast”?
            ﬡ:  I am not (ουκ) going up to this feast
            Byz:  I am not yet (ουπω) going up to this feast
            (Papyrus 66, Papyrus 75, and Codex Vaticanus agree with Byz here)

45.  Does John 7:22 begin with “Therefore”?
            ﬡ:  no
            Byz:  yes

46.  In John 7:26, do the people ask a question about the high priest?
            ﬡ:  yes
            Byz:  no

47.  In John 7:27, do the people raise a question about the signs the Messiah will do?
            ﬡ:  yes
            Byz:  no

48.  Does John 7:35 say that the Jews said something among themselves?
            ﬡ:  no
            Byz:  yes

49.  In John 7:37, does Jesus say, If anyone thirsts, “let him come to Me and drink”?
            ﬡ:  no
            Byz:  yes

50.  Does John 7:50 say anything about Nicodemus’ previous encounter with Jesus?
             ﬡ:  no
            Byz:  yes

● 51.  Does the Gospel of John contain an episode about Jesus and a woman caught in adultery, in which Jesus says “Go and sin no more”?
            ﬡ:  no (John 7:53-8:11 is absent)
            Byz:  yes

52.  Does John 8:20 say that Jesus was teaching in the temple?
            ﬡ:  no
            Byz:  yes

53.  In John 8:26, does Jesus specifically say that the Father has sent Him?
            ﬡ:  yes
            Byz:  no

54. Does John 8:27 specifically say that Jesus was speaking of God as the Father?
            ﬡ:  yes
            Byz:  no

55.  In John 8:35, does Jesus affirm that the Son abides forever?
            ﬡ:  no
            Byz:  yes

56.  In John 8:52, does Jesus say something about death?
            ﬡ:  no
            Byz:  yes

57.  In John 8:57, did the Jews ask Jesus, “Have you seen Abraham,” or “Has Abraham seen You”?
            ﬡ:  has Abraham seen You?
            Byz:  have you seen Abraham? 

● 58.  Does John 8:59 report that Jesus went through their midst, and so passed by” as He left the temple?
            ﬡ:  no
            Byz:  yes

59.  Does John 9:10 specifically mention the Jews?
            ﬡ:  yes
            Byz:  no

60.  In John 9:38, does the formerly blind man say to Jesus, “Lord, I believe”?
            ﬡ:  no
            Byz:  yes

61.  In John 9:39, does the formerly blind man worship Jesus?
            ﬡ:  no
            Byz: yes

62.  Does John 10:10 specifically refer to eternal life?
            ﬡ:  yes
            Byz:  no

63.  In John 11:31, were the Jews thinking that Jesus was going to the tomb to weep there, or were they Jews saying that Mary was going to the tomb to weep there?
            ﬡ:  they were thinking that Jesus was going to the tomb
            Byz:  they were saying that Mary was going to the tomb

64.  In John 11:50, does Caiaphas say “It is profitable for us that one man should die,” or does he say, “It is profitable that one man should die”?
            ﬡ:  it is profitable
            Byz:  it is profitable for us

● 65.  Does John 12:1 specify that the individual named Lazarus is “the one who had died”?
            ﬡ:  no
            Byz:  yes

66.  In John 12:25, did Jesus say that he who hates his life in this world shall keep it?
            ﬡ:  no
            Byz:  yes

67.  In John 12:31, does Jesus say something about the prince of this world?
            ﬡ:  no
            Byz:  yes

68.  Does John 13:1 say that Jesus loved “His own” who were in the world, or “the Jews” who were in the world?
            ﬡ:  the Jews
            Byz:  His own

69.  In John 13:6, does Simon Peter address Jesus as “Lord”?
            ﬡ:  no
            Byz:  yes

70.  In John 13:9, does Simon Peter address Jesus as “Lord”?
            ﬡ:  no
            Byz:  yes

71.  In John 13:10, does Jesus say something about washing feet?
            ﬡ:  no
            Byz:  yes

72.  In John 13:12, did Jesus take their garments, or His garments?
            ﬡ:  their garments
            Byz:  His garments

73.  Does John 13:22 say that the Jews looked, one another, upon the disciples?
            ﬡ:  yes
            Byz:  no

74.  In John 13:24, does Simon Peter (a) motion to the disciple whom Jesus loved to ask Jesus to whom He referred, and (b) tell the disciple to ask Him of whom He spoke?
            ﬡ:  yes
            Byz:  no; only the first action is mentioned

● 75.  How does John 13:32 begin?
            ﬡ:  “Also God shall glorify Him in Himself” 
            Byz:  “If God has been glorified in Him”     

76.  In John 13:37, Does Simon Peter address Jesus as “Lord”?
            ﬡ:  no
            Byz:  yes  

77.  In John 14:16, does Jesus say that He will keep the Father, or that He will ask the Father?
            ﬡ:  keep
            Byz:  ask

78.  In John 15:10, does Jesus say, “If you keep My commandments, you shall abide in My love”?
            ﬡ:  no
            Byz:  yes

79.  Does John 15:21 say that people will do these things “to you”?
            ﬡ:  no
            Byz:  yes

80.  In John 16:9, does Jesus say that the Comforter will convict the world concerning sin because “they believe on Me” or “because they do not believe on Me”?
            ﬡ:  because they believe on Me
            Byz:  because they do not believe on Me

81.  In John 16:15, does Jesus say, “All things that the Father has are Mine; therefore I said that He will take of Mine, and shall show it to you”?
            ﬡ:  no
            Byz:  yes

● 82.  Does John 16:16 end with the phrase “because I go to the Father”?
            ﬡ:  no
            Byz:  yes

83.  In John 16:17, does Jesus mention the phrase, “A little while, and you shall not see Me”?
            ﬡ:  no
            Byz:  yes

84.  In John 17:8, does Jesus affirm that the people who were given to Him have known truly that He came from the Father?
            ﬡ:  no
            Byz:  yes

85.  Does John 17:10 begin with the phrase, “And all Mine are Yours, and Yours are Mine”?
            ﬡ:  no
            Byz:  yes

86.  Does John 17:17 include the phrase, “Your word is truth”?
            ﬡ:  no
            Byz:  yes

87.  In John 17:26, does Jesus refer to “the love in which You loved Me” or to “the love in which You loved them”?
            ﬡ:  the love in which You loved them
            Byz:  the love in which You loved Me

88.  In John 19:13, is the judgment seat in a place that is called Gabbatha, or Golgotha?
            ﬡ:  Golgotha
            Byz:  Gabbatha      

89.  Does John 19:20 say that the title was read by many of the Jews, and that it was written in Hebrew, and Greek, and Latin?
            ﬡ:  no (the whole verse is absent)
            Byz:  yes

90.  Does John 19:21 say that the chief priests told Pilate not to write “King of the Jews”?
            ﬡ:   no
            Byz:  yes

91.  Does John 19:23 mention that the soldiers also took Jesus’ tunic?
            ﬡ:  no
            Byz:  yes

92.  In John 19:26, does John say that Jesus saw His mother?
            ﬡ:  no
            Byz:  yes

93.  Does John 19:38 say that Joseph of Arimathea “took the body of Jesus,” or that Joseph of Arimathea “took Him”?
            ﬡ:  took Him
            Byz:  took the body of Jesus

94.  Does John 20:3 say that Peter and the other disciple came to the tomb?
            ﬡ:  no
            Byz:  yes

95.  Does John 20:5 mention that the other disciple did not enter the tomb?
            ﬡ:  no
            Byz:  yes

96.  Does John 20:6 say that Simon Peter came and entered the tomb?
            ﬡ:  no
            Byz:  yes

97.  In John 21:15, does Jesus call Simon “son of Jonah”?
            ﬡ:  no
            Byz:  yes (the Alexandrian Text has “son of John” – but ﬡ has neither)

98.  In John 21:20, did Peter see the disciple whom Jesus loved, following?
            ﬡ:  no
            Byz:  yes

99.  In John 21:21, did Peter address Jesus as “Lord”?
            ﬡ:  no
            Byz:  yes

100.  Does John 21:23 end with the phrase, “What is that to you”?
            ﬡ: no
            Byz:  yes

Please explain, Dr. White.
Bonus:  Does the Gospel of John end with a statement to the effect that the world could not contain the books that would be written if all of Jesus’ deeds were written down?
            ﬡ:  no (the copyist concluded the text at the end of John 21:24, and wrote the closing-title after that.  However, his supervisor apparently overruled his decision to remove verse 25; the closing title was erased, and verse 25 was added along with the closing title below it.)
            Byz:  yes

(There are more than 100 readings in Codex Sinaiticus which mean something different than what the Byzantine reading means; I just tried to keep things tidy by limiting it to 100.)
Readers are invited to double-check the accuracy of the data in this post.





Thursday, April 4, 2019

Comparing Sinaiticus to the Byzantine Text in Luke


            Continuing the examination of deviations between the text of Codex Sinaiticus and the Byzantine Text in the Gospels, let’s look today at some meaningful differences the two in the Gospel of Luke.  In Luke, Sinaiticus’ text differs from not only the Byzantine Text, but from virtually all other manuscripts, with great frequency – but usually the differences do not drastically affect the meaning of the sentences in which they occur.  The list of translatable differences between the text of Codex Sinaiticus (À) and the Byzantine Text exceeds 100, but I chose the following 60, not just in the interest of brevity, but also because they make it especially obvious that the text of Codex Sinaiticus is different not only in its wording, but in its meaning. 

            Consider these differences between what Sinaiticus says, and what the Byzantine Text says:

1.  In Luke 1:26, is Nazareth located in Judea, or in Galilee?
            ÀJudea
            Byz:  Galilee

● 2.  In Luke 1:28, does the angel tell Mary, “Blessed are you among women?”
            À:  no
            Byz:  yes

3.  Does Luke 1:65 say that people spoke of all these things in the hill-country of Judea?
            À:  no
            Byz:  yes

● 4.  At the end of Luke 2:14, does the angel say, “Peace on earth; goodwill to men,” or “Peace on earth to men with whom God is pleased”?
            Byz:   Peace on earth; goodwill to men
            À:  Peace on earth to men with whom God is pleased

5.  According to Luke 2:37, how many years had Anna been a widow?
            À:  about 74 years
            Byz:  about 84 years   

● 6.  Does Luke 2:43 refer to Joseph and Mary as His “parents,” or as “Joseph and His mother”?
            À:  parents
            Byz:  Joseph and His mother

7.  In Luke 2:44, did they look for Jesus among His kinsfolk and acquaintances, or are only his kinsfolk mentioned?
            À:  kinsfolk
            Byz:  kinsfolk and acquaintances

8.  In Luke 3:1, in what territory did Pontius Pilate serve as governor?
            À:  the text does not say
            Byz:  Judea

9.  Does Jesus’ genealogy in Luke 3:32 mention Boaz and Salmon, or Balls and Sala?
            À:  Balls and Sala
            Byz:  Boaz and Salmon

10.  In Luke 3:33, was Adam the father of Admin?
            À:  yes
            Byz:  no

● 11.  Does Luke 4:4 include the phrase “but by every word of God”?
            À:  no
            Byz:  yes

● 12.  Does Luke 4:5 say that the devil took Jesus up on a high mountain?
            À:  no
            Byz:  yes

● 13.  In Luke 4:8, does Jesus say “You get behind me, Satan”?
            À:  no
            Byz:  yes

● 14.  Does Luke 4:18 include the phrase “to heal the broken-hearted”?
            À:  no
            Byz:  yes

15.  In Luke 5:14, did Jesus tell the healed leper to show himself to the priest?
            À:  no
            Byz:  yes

16.  Besides tax collectors, did others sit down in Luke 5:29?
            À:  others are not mentioned
            Byz:  yes

● 17.  Does Luke 5:38 include the phrase, “and both are preserved together”?
            À:  no
            Byz:  yes

18.  Does Luke 6:17 mention people from Perea?
            À:  yes
            Byz:  no

19.  Does Jesus say in Luke 6:44 that people do not gather grapes from a bramble-bush, or that people do not gather grapes from a sprout?
            À:  from a sprout
            Byz:  from a bramble-bush

● 20.  In Luke 6:48, did Jesus say that the house “was well-built,” or that it was “built upon the rock”? 
            À:  it was well-built
            Byz:  it was built upon the rock

21.  In Luke 8:37, where was the multitude from?
            À:  around the country of the Gergesenes
            Byz:  around the country of the Gadarenes

22.  Does Luke 8:40 say that the people in the crowd were all looking for Jesus, or that they were all looking for God?
            À:  for God (τον Θν)
            Byz:  for Jesus (αυτον, Him)

23.  Does Luke 8:47 include the statement that the women saw that she was not hid?
            À:  no
            Byz:  yes

24.  Does Luke 8:47 say that the woman told the crowd why she had touched Jesus?
            À: no
            Byz:  yes

● 25.  Does Luke 8:54, referring to those who mocked, mention that Jesus put them all out?
            À:  no
            Byz:  yes

26.  Does Luke 8:55 say that the girl who had been dead arose immediately?
            À:  no
            Byz:  yes

27.  Does Luke 9:7 describe Herod as a tetrarch?
            À:  no
            Byz:  yes

28.  Does Luke 9:10 mention Bethsaida by name?
            À:  no
            Byz:  yes

29.  In Luke 10:32, does the Parable of the Good Samaritan include a Levite?
            À:  no
            Byz:  yes

30.  At the end of Luke 12:37, did Jesus say that the master, when he comes, will serve his faithful servants?
            À:  no 
            Byz:  yes

● 31.  Does Jesus say in Luke 12:39 that the master of the house would have watched if he had known when the thief was coming?
            À:  no
            Byz:  yes

32.  In Luke 12:52, did Jesus say that there shall be five in one house divided?
            À:  no
            Byz:  yes

33.  Does the ruler of the synagogue say in Luke 13:14 that it is fitting for man to work six days a week?
            À:  no
            Byz:  yes

34.  Does Jesus say in Luke 13:25 that some people shall stand outside when they ask for the door to be opened?
            À:  no
            Byz:  yes  

35.  In Luke 14:15-16, does someone say, “Blessed are those who shall eat bread in the kingdom of God”?  
            À:  no
            Byz:  yes

36.  In Luke 15:13, does Jesus mention that the prodigal son wasted his wealth on riotous living?
            À:  no
            Byz:  yes

37.  Does Luke 16:16 say that everyone is pressing into the kingdom of God?
            À:  no
            Byz:  yes

● 38.  Does Jesus conclude Luke 17:9 with the comment, “I know not”?
            À:  no
            Byz:  yes

39.  In Luke 17:10, does Jesus make a statement about what should be done when everything that was commanded has been done?
            À:  no
            Byz:  yes

40.  In Luke 17:12, does Luke mention that the ten lepers stood afar off?
            À:  no
            Byz:  yes

41.  In Luke 17:35, does Jesus say that two shall be grinding; one shall be taken and the other shall be left?
            À:  no
            Byz:  yes

42.  In the parable in Luke 18:11, does the Pharisee in the temple pray “with himself”?
            À:  no
            Byz:  yes

● 43.  Does Luke 18:24 report that Jesus became very sorrowful?   
            À:  no
            Byz:  yes

● 44.  In Luke 20:23, does Jesus ask a question?
            À:  no
            Byz:  yes

45.  In Luke 20:28, did the Sadducees mention the qualification about a man dying childless? 
            À:  no
            Byz:  yes

● 46.  In Luke 20:30, did the Sadducees specifically say that the second brother took the woman as his wife, and died childless?
            À:  no
            Byz:  yes

47.  In Luke 21:8, does Jesus predict that many will come and say, “The time is near”?
            À:  no
            Byz:  yes

48.  Does Luke 22:6 mention that Judas made a promise?
            À:  no
            Byz:  yes

49.  In Luke 22:53, did Jesus tell those arresting Him, “This is your hour”?
            À:  no
            Byz:  yes

● 50.  Does Luke 22:64 mention that Jesus was being struck on the face?
            À:  no
            Byz:  yes

51.  In Luke 23:5, did the people say that Jesus had been teaching throughout all of Judea?
            À: no
            Byz:  yes

● 52.  In Luke 23:42, did the repentant thief address Jesus as “Lord”?
            À:  no
            Byz:  yes

● 53.  Does Luke 24:1 report that the women at the tomb had some others with them?
            À:  no
            Byz:  yes

54.  In Luke 24:12, did Peter see the linen clothes lying by themselves?
            À:  no
            Byz:  yes

55.  According to Luke 24:13, how far was Emmaus from Jerusalem?
            À:  one hundred and sixty stadia
            Byz:  sixty stadia 

56.  Does Luke 24:27 say that Jesus explained all of the Scriptures about Him?
            À:  no
            Byz:  yes

57.  In Luke 24:31, does Luke say that when the two travelers’ eyes were opened, they knew Him?
            À:  no
            Byz:  yes

● 58.  Does Luke 24:42 say that Jesus ate a piece of honeycomb?
            À:  no
            Byz:  yes

● 59.  In Luke 24:46, does Jesus say that it was fitting for the Messiah to suffer?
            À:  no
            Byz:  yes

60.  Does Luke 24:51 say that Jesus was carried up into heaven?
            À:  no
            Byz:  yes

            As was the case with the comparisons between the Byzantine Text and the text written by the copyist of Sinaiticus in Matthew and Mark, my purpose is not to show which text is better; it is to show that they are different.  The doctrine of inerrancy is difficult to maintain when one’s text says that Nazareth is in Judea.  And if one uses a text that does not contain Mark 16:19 and Luke 24:51b, one must concede that Jesus’ bodily ascension is not reported anywhere in the Gospels.  In addition, many things are said in the Byzantine Text that the text written by the copyist of Codex Sinaiticus does not say – it is not a matter of conveying the same thing in different words; it is a matter of losing data. 
            At some point, readers should be asking, “How reliable is the text of Codex Sinaiticus?”  A longer list of its unusual readings would demonstrate that it is more unreliable than the average medieval Byzantine manuscript – but to just give some idea of its unreliability:  red dots that accompany a listing indicate that À disagrees not only with the Byzantine Text, but also with the Nestle-Aland compilation (41 out of these 60 entries).